| Between fears and hope | 26 years have passed since the Srebrenica massacres. The city is now part of the Republika Srpska, the entity of the Bosnian Serbs born out of the Dayton accords. The scars of the Genocide still permeate the entire landscape today. I am going for the first time to Srebrenica in February 2020 to document the memory of the Genocide and its consequences on Bosnian society today.


Over time, Muslim families decided to return to live in Srebrenica. They often face denial of the genocide and, at times, episodes of discrimination and provocation. I befriended Ahmed Hrustanovic, the young Imam of the mosque. He survived the Genocide, but lost his father, his grandfathers and all of his uncles. Ahmed agrees to share his family's daily life with me and allows me to meet survivors of the Genocide. He is, within the Muslim community of Srebrenica, one of the few to directly oppose the Serbian authorities in the municipality. Every night we talk for hours. He tells me about his traumas, his anxieties, and the doubts that gnaw at him when it comes to evoking the future. He explains to me that he is haunted by his own memory, and above all, by his father's face. He tells me one evening that his life oscillates between fear and hope, "Between fears and hope". I understand through all these testimonies the concrete meaning of PTSD, these post-traumatic stress syndromes, real invisible stigmas of war which are passed on from generation to generation.


Over a period of almost two years, I try to make visible what history has already arranged in the pages of textbooks. I am interested in faces, landscapes, habitats imprinted with emptiness, and above all, absence. The absence of loved ones who suddenly disappeared. The very absence of their bodies, deliberately dismembered and scattered in multiple mass graves, making it impossible for families to mourn. Through photography, I strive to give a concrete reality to the Genocide, in order to extricate it from the simple statistics which inexorably condemn it to oblivion.

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Annual commemoration at the Kravica Agricultural Warehouse where Ms. Gurdic's son Mehrudin was murdered on July 13, 1995.


July 2020

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Annual commemoration at the Kravica Agricultural Warehouse where Ms. Gurdic's son Mehrudin was murdered on July 13, 1995.


July 2020

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Pilica Cultural Center. On July 16, 1995, soldiers of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) summarily executed around 500 men with automatic weapons inside the cultural center in the village of Pilica. These prisoners had been captured among the column of men fleeing the Srebrenica enclave.


October 2020

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Pilica Cultural Center. On July 16, 1995, soldiers of the Bosnian Serb Army (VRS) summarily executed around 500 men with automatic weapons inside the cultural center in the village of Pilica. These prisoners had been captured among the column of men fleeing the Srebrenica enclave.


October 2020

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Srebrenica and its religious buildings. The two mosques were completely destroyed after the capture of the city.


October 2020

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Srebrenica and its religious buildings. The two mosques were completely destroyed after the capture of the city.


October 2020

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Ahmed officiates at the Friday prayers at the city mosque.


October  2020

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Ahmed officiates at the Friday prayers at the city mosque.


October  2020

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Ahmed takes his children to the destroyed village of his childhood, Miholjevine, lost in the mountains of Srebrenica. A moment of joy for the children, of deep sadness for him.


July 2020

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Ahmed takes his children to the destroyed village of his childhood, Miholjevine, lost in the mountains of Srebrenica. A moment of joy for the children, of deep sadness for him.


July 2020

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Kravica agricultural warehouse. On July 13, 1995, in the late afternoon, Serbian soldiers executed 1,314 people detained in an agricultural warehouse in the village of Kravica. The soldiers used automatic weapons, hand grenades, and other heavy weapons. Ahmed's father, his two grandfathers, several cousins and all of his uncles were executed there.


Octobre 2020

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Kravica agricultural warehouse. On July 13, 1995, in the late afternoon, Serbian soldiers executed 1,314 people detained in an agricultural warehouse in the village of Kravica. The soldiers used automatic weapons, hand grenades, and other heavy weapons. Ahmed's father, his two grandfathers, several cousins and all of his uncles were executed there.


Octobre 2020

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Ahmed meets with a forensic scientist from the ICMP (International Commission on Missing Persons). New bones of his father have just been identified by DNA.


Mach 2021

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Ahmed meets with a forensic scientist from the ICMP (International Commission on Missing Persons). New bones of his father have just been identified by DNA.


Mach 2021

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Enis, Ahmed's brother, looks at the ICMP identification documents. He never knew his father.


Mars 2021

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Enis, Ahmed's brother, looks at the ICMP identification documents. He never knew his father.


Mars 2021

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Ahmed's family decided to bury the newly identified new bones. A moment of suffering for three generations.


July 2021

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Ahmed's family decided to bury the newly identified new bones. A moment of suffering for three generations.


July 2021

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Under the supervision of bosnian serbs police officers and ICMP experts, the skeleton is partially reconstructed.


July 2021

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Under the supervision of bosnian serbs police officers and ICMP experts, the skeleton is partially reconstructed.


July 2021

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Ahmed meditates on his father's grave. He holds the forensic identification card that had been buried during the first burial on July 11, 2012.


July 2021

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Ahmed meditates on his father's grave. He holds the forensic identification card that had been buried during the first burial on July 11, 2012.


July 2021

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Ahmed draws from his faith the courage and resilience to overcome the traumas that beset him. Earlier in the day, he had to face the ordeal of confrontation with his father's remains.


March 2021

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Ahmed draws from his faith the courage and resilience to overcome the traumas that beset him. Earlier in the day, he had to face the ordeal of confrontation with his father's remains.


March 2021

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Former UN military base in Potocari.


July 2020

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Former UN military base in Potocari.


July 2020

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UN military base in Potocari. The walls of the barracks are partially covered with sketches made by the Dutch soldiers. They counted each day that separated them from their shift.


October 2020

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UN military base in Potocari. The walls of the barracks are partially covered with sketches made by the Dutch soldiers. They counted each day that separated them from their shift.


October 2020

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Almasa Salihović was only 8 years old in 1995. On July 11, she had to stay two days in front of the UN gate with her mother, both terrified, trying to hide her younger brother as best they both could, fearing serb soldiers would arrest him. Her 15-year-old brother, Abdullah, managed to enter the United Nations base hours earlier, convinced that it would be protected by peacekeepers. It didn't happen. With the consent of the Dutch soldiers, he was handed over to the Serbian soldiers and later executed. 


Recently, earthworks have uncovered the remains of the destroyed house of Almasa in the village of Skelani.


March 2021

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Almasa Salihović was only 8 years old in 1995. On July 11, she had to stay two days in front of the UN gate with her mother, both terrified, trying to hide her younger brother as best they both could, fearing serb soldiers would arrest him. Her 15-year-old brother, Abdullah, managed to enter the United Nations base hours earlier, convinced that it would be protected by peacekeepers. It didn't happen. With the consent of the Dutch soldiers, he was handed over to the Serbian soldiers and later executed. 


Recently, earthworks have uncovered the remains of the destroyed house of Almasa in the village of Skelani.


March 2021

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Almost all of Srebrenica's industries are still destroyed today.


March 2021

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Almost all of Srebrenica's industries are still destroyed today.


March 2021

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Pilica Cultural Center. The families of the victims can only access it once, the time for a brief wreath laying. Any other form of commemoration is systematically refused to them.


March 2021

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Pilica Cultural Center. The families of the victims can only access it once, the time for a brief wreath laying. Any other form of commemoration is systematically refused to them.


March 2021

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Potocari Valley. Below, the former UN military base.


October 2020

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Potocari Valley. Below, the former UN military base.


October 2020

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Commemorations of July 11, 2021. 19 new victims recently identified by DNA will be buried the next day.


July 2021

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Commemorations of July 11, 2021. 19 new victims recently identified by DNA will be buried the next day.


July 2021

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Houses destroyed along the Drina River, the natural border between Bosnia and Serbia.


October 2020

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Houses destroyed along the Drina River, the natural border between Bosnia and Serbia.


October 2020

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Potocari. On July 12, 1995, between the zinc factory and "Alija's" house, VRS soldiers summarily executed by beheading 80 to 100 Muslim prisoners.


July 2020

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Potocari. On July 12, 1995, between the zinc factory and "Alija's" house, VRS soldiers summarily executed by beheading 80 to 100 Muslim prisoners.


July 2020

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Saliha Osmanovic lost her two boys in July 1995. Her son Edin was killed in a bombardment on July 6, her other son, Nermin, and her husband were executed in Kravica on July 13. Saliha is a memory fighter. She was a key witness in the Mladic trial. She recalls her first confrontation with the Serbian general, vehemently questioning him about his conscience - even forcing him to lower his eyes.


October 2020

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Saliha Osmanovic lost her two boys in July 1995. Her son Edin was killed in a bombardment on July 6, her other son, Nermin, and her husband were executed in Kravica on July 13. Saliha is a memory fighter. She was a key witness in the Mladic trial. She recalls her first confrontation with the Serbian general, vehemently questioning him about his conscience - even forcing him to lower his eyes.


October 2020

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Mujo Pasic was evacuated by helicopter in 1993 due to a shrapnel injury. Once recovered, he repeatedly tried to return to the besieged enclave in order to protect his family. He never succeeded. Her two boys, Muamer, 15, and Muhamed, 17, were executed in the Kravica warehouse.


October 2020

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Mujo Pasic was evacuated by helicopter in 1993 due to a shrapnel injury. Once recovered, he repeatedly tried to return to the besieged enclave in order to protect his family. He never succeeded. Her two boys, Muamer, 15, and Muhamed, 17, were executed in the Kravica warehouse.


October 2020

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Nova Kasaba football ground. On July 13, several hundred captured Muslims were held captive at the site of the village football field, some executed nearby.


July 2020

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Nova Kasaba football ground. On July 13, several hundred captured Muslims were held captive at the site of the village football field, some executed nearby.


July 2020

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The Grbavci school in Orahovac, a detention site where more than 1,000 Muslim prisoners were held on July 13 and 14 before being taken to the execution sites in the immediate vicinity.


October 2020.

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The Grbavci school in Orahovac, a detention site where more than 1,000 Muslim prisoners were held on July 13 and 14 before being taken to the execution sites in the immediate vicinity.


October 2020.

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Fahrudin Muminovic was only 7 years old in July 1995. Machine gunned at point blank range with his father, he was only seriously injured. Before the Serbian soldiers could shot him again, a Serbian doctor intervened and saved his life, claiming to bring him to another death squad. But he did nothing and took the young boy to Zvornik hospital, where he was later handed over to the Red Cross. Today, Fahrudin is 33 years old. He suffers from severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which prevents him from leading a normal life. He divides his time between meals cooked by his relatives and video games.


Urkovići, October 2020

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Fahrudin Muminovic was only 7 years old in July 1995. Machine gunned at point blank range with his father, he was only seriously injured. Before the Serbian soldiers could shot him again, a Serbian doctor intervened and saved his life, claiming to bring him to another death squad. But he did nothing and took the young boy to Zvornik hospital, where he was later handed over to the Red Cross. Today, Fahrudin is 33 years old. He suffers from severe post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which prevents him from leading a normal life. He divides his time between meals cooked by his relatives and video games.


Urkovići, October 2020

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Šakir Mujić was 21 years old in 1993. Due to the constant shelling, the inhabitants of his village had to flee. They took refuge in the woods, surviving in log cabins, sometimes in caves on the cliffs leading down to the Drina River. Most of these shelters were destroyed by Serbian soldiers, only a few remain today.


October 2020.

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Šakir Mujić was 21 years old in 1993. Due to the constant shelling, the inhabitants of his village had to flee. They took refuge in the woods, surviving in log cabins, sometimes in caves on the cliffs leading down to the Drina River. Most of these shelters were destroyed by Serbian soldiers, only a few remain today.


October 2020.

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Sandici meadow, place of detention for prisoners who surrendered to Serbian forces from the surrounding hills. In order to convince the fugitives to surrender, some Serbian soldiers wore the UN's blue helmets, claiming that the prisoners would be treated in strict accordance with the Geneva conventions.


October 2020

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Sandici meadow, place of detention for prisoners who surrendered to Serbian forces from the surrounding hills. In order to convince the fugitives to surrender, some Serbian soldiers wore the UN's blue helmets, claiming that the prisoners would be treated in strict accordance with the Geneva conventions.


October 2020

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Nedzad Avdic is one of the 2 survivors of the Petkovci massacre. He takes me to his old ruined high school in the village of Nova Kasaba, where he remembers the time when all children could study together, regardless of their ethnicity or religion.


July 2020

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Nedzad Avdic is one of the 2 survivors of the Petkovci massacre. He takes me to his old ruined high school in the village of Nova Kasaba, where he remembers the time when all children could study together, regardless of their ethnicity or religion.


July 2020

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Petkovci Dam. On the evening of July 14, 1995 and the morning of the 15th, Bosnian Serb soldiers transported the survivors of a group of about 1,000 Muslim prisoners from the Petkovci school to an area below the dam. The soldiers rounded up them below the roadblock and summarily executed them with automatic weapons. On the morning of July 15, 1995, soldiers used backhoes and other earthmovers to bury the victims, as executions continued.


Among them, Nedzad Avdic, then aged 17.


October 2020

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Petkovci Dam. On the evening of July 14, 1995 and the morning of the 15th, Bosnian Serb soldiers transported the survivors of a group of about 1,000 Muslim prisoners from the Petkovci school to an area below the dam. The soldiers rounded up them below the roadblock and summarily executed them with automatic weapons. On the morning of July 15, 1995, soldiers used backhoes and other earthmovers to bury the victims, as executions continued.


Among them, Nedzad Avdic, then aged 17.


October 2020

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Execution site below the Petkovci dam, at the very spot where Nedzad Avdic was seriously wounded by three bullets shot from an automatic weapon fired at close range. In favor of the night, helped by another prisoner miraculously unharmed, the two survivors will manage to flee the site and join the positions of the Bosnian army after several days of wanderings in the mountains.


March 2021

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Execution site below the Petkovci dam, at the very spot where Nedzad Avdic was seriously wounded by three bullets shot from an automatic weapon fired at close range. In favor of the night, helped by another prisoner miraculously unharmed, the two survivors will manage to flee the site and join the positions of the Bosnian army after several days of wanderings in the mountains.


March 2021

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Petkovci Dam. The water is polluted by mining industries located nearby.


October 2020

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Petkovci Dam. The water is polluted by mining industries located nearby.


October 2020

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Drago is an 84-year-old Serbian resident of the village of Petkovci. During the war, he was a truck driver. We chatted for a moment, in a friendly way. But it is not common to see, in a village marked by the crimes of the genocide, a Serbian resident interacting with foreigners. Our conversation quickly caught the eye. A neighbor came to sit on the bench right next to him. From then on, Drago remained silent, even distant.


March 2021

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Drago is an 84-year-old Serbian resident of the village of Petkovci. During the war, he was a truck driver. We chatted for a moment, in a friendly way. But it is not common to see, in a village marked by the crimes of the genocide, a Serbian resident interacting with foreigners. Our conversation quickly caught the eye. A neighbor came to sit on the bench right next to him. From then on, Drago remained silent, even distant.


March 2021

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School of Pilica. On July 14 and 15, 1995, Bosnian serb soldiers transported approximately 1,200 Muslim prisoners from Bratunac detention centers to Pilica school. These men had been captured in the column of men fleeing the Srebrenica enclave. The soldiers summarily executed a large number of Muslim prisoners with automatic weapons directly on the school site. No monument or commemorative plaque has ever been erected, the massacres having been committed in villages which are now an integral part of the Republika Srpska. Silence and denial hover over all Genocide sites.


March 2021

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School of Pilica. On July 14 and 15, 1995, Bosnian serb soldiers transported approximately 1,200 Muslim prisoners from Bratunac detention centers to Pilica school. These men had been captured in the column of men fleeing the Srebrenica enclave. The soldiers summarily executed a large number of Muslim prisoners with automatic weapons directly on the school site. No monument or commemorative plaque has ever been erected, the massacres having been committed in villages which are now an integral part of the Republika Srpska. Silence and denial hover over all Genocide sites.


March 2021

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During the war, Ramiz Cardakovic was part of a team of a few friends infiltrated behind the Serbian lines. A group of foresters from the village of Stoborani escorting refugees from Žepa to Tuzla, a dangerous 120 kilometers trek through the snow-capped mountains. Together, they saved the lives of nearly 400 refugees.


Stoborani, March 2021

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During the war, Ramiz Cardakovic was part of a team of a few friends infiltrated behind the Serbian lines. A group of foresters from the village of Stoborani escorting refugees from Žepa to Tuzla, a dangerous 120 kilometers trek through the snow-capped mountains. Together, they saved the lives of nearly 400 refugees.


Stoborani, March 2021

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Muhamed Avdic was 12 when he was evacuated from the enclave in 1993. After the fall of Srebrenica, his father was taken prisoner in Serbia and handed over to the Bosnian Serb authorities. The exchange took place on the Drina Bridge in Bratunac. Since that date, his father's body has never been found.


October 2020

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Muhamed Avdic was 12 when he was evacuated from the enclave in 1993. After the fall of Srebrenica, his father was taken prisoner in Serbia and handed over to the Bosnian Serb authorities. The exchange took place on the Drina Bridge in Bratunac. Since that date, his father's body has never been found.


October 2020

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Destroyed houses near the Srebrenica football stadium.


March 2021

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Destroyed houses near the Srebrenica football stadium.


March 2021

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Mountain landscape in the vicinity of Srebrenica. About 15,000 refugees tried to flee the enclave, from the evening of July 11, 1995. Decimated by Serbian artillery, hunted down, exhausted, in despair, several committed suicide by hanging so as not to fall into the hands of those who were chasing them.


October 2020

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Mountain landscape in the vicinity of Srebrenica. About 15,000 refugees tried to flee the enclave, from the evening of July 11, 1995. Decimated by Serbian artillery, hunted down, exhausted, in despair, several committed suicide by hanging so as not to fall into the hands of those who were chasing them.


October 2020

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The living room of Mrs. Hajra Catic, Nino's mother, one of the journalist present in the city throughout the siege. To this day, his body has never been found. Hajra Catic passed away on November 9, 2021.


October 2020

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The living room of Mrs. Hajra Catic, Nino's mother, one of the journalist present in the city throughout the siege. To this day, his body has never been found. Hajra Catic passed away on November 9, 2021.


October 2020

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Burial ceremony at the Srebrenica memorial cemetery.


July 2021

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Burial ceremony at the Srebrenica memorial cemetery.


July 2021

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